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These days most of the web apps are using AJAX techniques. When a page is loaded by the browser, the elements within that page may load at different time intervals. This makes locating elements difficult: if an element is not yet present in the DOM, a locate function will raise an ElementNotVisibleException exception. Using waits, we can solve this issue. Waiting provides some slack between actions performed - mostly locating an element or any other operation with the element.

Selenium Webdriver provides two types of waits - implicit & explicit. An explicit wait makes WebDriver wait for a certain condition to occur before proceeding further with execution. An implicit wait makes WebDriver poll the DOM for a certain amount of time when trying to locate an element.

5.1. Explicit Waits

An explicit wait is a code you define to wait for a certain condition to occur before proceeding further in the code. The extreme case of this is time.sleep(), which sets the condition to an exact time period to wait. There are some convenience methods provided that help you write code that will wait only as long as required. WebDriverWait in combination with ExpectedCondition is one way this can be accomplished.

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By
from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait
from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions as EC

driver = Sandals Jimmy Choo Choo Jimmy Red webdriver.Firefox()
driverChoo Sandals Choo Red Jimmy Jimmy .get("http://somedomain/url_that_delays_loading")
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    element = WebDriverWait(driver, 10).until(
        EC.presence_of_element_located((By.ID, "myDynamicElement"Choo Choo Sandals Jimmy Red Jimmy ))
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This waits up to 10 seconds before throwing a TimeoutException unless it finds the element to return within 10 seconds. WebDriverWait by default calls the ExpectedCondition every 500 milliseconds until it returns successfully. A successful return is for ExpectedCondition type is Boolean return true or not null return value for all other ExpectedCondition types.

Expected Conditions

There are some common conditions that are frequently of use when automating web browsers. Listed below are the names of each. Selenium Python binding provides some Louboutin Louboutin Louboutin Louboutin Christian Christian Christian Christian Platforms Louboutin Christian Platforms Platforms Platforms Louboutin Platforms Christian 8fAAxqwpd so you don’t have to code an expected_condition class yourself or create your own utility package for them.

  • title_is
  • title_contains
  • presence_of_element_located
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  • visibility_of_element_located
  • visibility_of
  • presence_of_all_elements_located
  • Choo Jimmy Sandals Jimmy Red Choo text_to_be_present_in_element
  • text_to_be_present_in_element_value
  • frame_to_be_available_and_switch_to_it
  • invisibility_of_element_located
  • element_to_be_clickable
  • staleness_of
  • element_to_be_selected
  • element_located_to_be_selected
  • Jimmy Sandals Jimmy Choo Red Choo element_selection_state_to_be
  • element_located_selection_state_to_be
  • alert_is_present
from selenium.webdriver.supportSweet Lemon REINATA Nero L 23 Ar70AwHq import expected_conditions as EC

wait = Sandals Red Choo Jimmy Jimmy Choo WebDriverWait(driver, 10)
element = wait.until(EC.Nero 5 L ERNELA Lemon Sweet qz8CwnBelement_to_be_clickable((By.ID, 'someid')))

The expected_conditions module contains a set of predefined conditions to use with WebDriverWait.

Custom Wait Conditions

You can also create custom wait conditions when none of the previous convenience methods fit your requirements. A custom wait condition can be created using a class with __call__ method which returns False when the condition doesn’t match.

class element_has_css_class(Sandals Jimmy Choo Choo Red Jimmy object):
  """An expectation for checking that an element has a particular css class.

  locator - used to find the element
  returns the WebElement once it has the particular css class
  def __init__(self, locator, css_class):
    self.locator = locator
    selfChoo Jimmy Jimmy Red Choo Sandals .css_class = css_class

  Red Sandals Choo Jimmy Choo Jimmy def Choo Jimmy Red Choo Sandals Jimmy __call__(self, driver):
    element = driver.find_element(*self.locator)   # Finding the referenced element
    if self.css_class in element.get_attribute("class"):
        return element
        return False

# Wait until an element with id='myNewInput' has class 'myCSSClass'
wait Red Jimmy Sandals Choo Jimmy Choo = WebDriverWaitBoots Suede Stuart Stuart Suede Weitzman Boots Booties Weitzman q8YfS(driverSandals Choo Jimmy Red Choo Jimmy , 10)
element = wait.until(element_has_css_class((By.ID, 'myNewInput'), "myCSSClass"))

5.2. Implicit Waits

Red Jimmy Choo Jimmy Sandals Choo An implicit wait tells WebDriver to poll the DOM for a certain amount of time when trying to find any element (or elements) not immediately available. The default setting is 0. Once set, the implicit wait is set for the life of the WebDriver object.

from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Firefox()
driver.implicitly_wait(10) # secondsLeather Black Booties Boots Topshop Ankle 45cY7gq
driver.get(Jimmy Choo Sandals Choo Red Jimmy "http://somedomain/url_that_delays_loading")
Jimmy Choo Jimmy Choo Sandals Red myDynamicElement = driver.find_element_by_id("myDynamicElement")